Term Description
Approach The system of methods and principles used in a particular discipline
Aseptic meningitis A syndrome characterized by headache, neck stiffness, low grade fever, and CSF lymphocytic pleiocytosis in the absence of an acute bacterial pathogen. Viral meningitis is the most frequent cause although mycoplasma, and rickettsia infections; diagnostic or therapeutic procedures; neoplastic procedures; septic perimeningeal foci; and other conditions may result in this syndrome. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p745)
Aspect ratio The ratio of the lengths of the two axes on a graph; a square graph has an aspect ratio of 1
Benefit The positive results of a given treatment for an individual or a population (i.e., efficacy, convenience, or even quality of life)
Benefit-risk assessment An evaluation of medical product either quantitatively or qualitatively taking both benefits and risks of the product into account
Benefit-risk model A formal way to analyse benefit and risk consequences and their balances from a set of actions and to aid making choices amongst actions when risk aversion and preferences are specified
Bias The systematic tendency of any factors associated with the design, conduct, analysis, and evaluation of the results of a benefit-risk assessment to make the estimate of a treatment effect deviate from its true value
Clinical trial A research study of a patient population to answer specific questions of medical interest through intervention
Cognition The mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses
Confounding factors Factors that affect the outcome together with other factors / predictors
Conjoint analysis An umbrella term which refers to techniques that look at the individual contribution of attributes to overall value; such exercises may be ranking, rating, or choice based exercises
Criterion A standard by which the performance of a methodology and the alternatives can be judged or decided
Data-ink ratio The proportion of a graphic's ink devoted to the non-redundant display of data information.
Effectiveness The extent to which an intervention provides a therapeutic benefit when given under the usual circumstances
Efficacy The extent to which an intervention provides a therapeutic benefit under ideal circumstances
Elicitation The process through which relevant notions for a problem of interest are made explicit
Extension Clinical Study (Long Term) The follow-up (long-term of 1-2 years) of short-term comparative studies, where the comparator's arm is abandoned (e.g., in some designs, the patients in the comparator's arm may move to the active medication arm)
Framework TA structured stepwise approach to perform a task
Graphical methods/ representation The principles and procedures to present some numerical features or relations by a graph
Greyscale The shades in the black and white spectrum with no other colours
Haemolytic anaemia A form of anaemia due to haemolysis, the abnormal breakdown of red blood cells (RBCs), either intravascular or extravascular
Health technology assessment An analysis of the medical, economic, social, and ethical implications of the incremental value, diffusion, and use of a medical technology in health care
Hue The dominant colour; higher hue of a primary colour gives the perception that the object appears with the shades of that colour
Incidence The frequency of the first occurrence of an event or a condition in a specified period
Line pattern The look of a line which could be, e.g., solid, dash, dot
Measurement A process of establishing the correspondence between a property of the world and a number system
Measures A metric or measurement.
Methodology The system of methods and principles used in a particular discipline
Metric A system of measurement
Opportunistic Infections An opportunistic infection is an infection caused by pathogens, such as bacterial, viral, fungal or protozoan infections that usually do not cause disease in a healthy host. A compromised immune system, however, presents an "opportunity" for the pathogen to infect.
Part-to-whole A representation of smaller entities (part) in the construction of the larger entity (whole).
Perception The way in which something is regarded, understood, or interpreted, i.e., the translation of sense impressions into meaningful experiences of the outside world
Pharmacoepidemiology The study of the use and effects of drugs in well-defined populations
Preference values

A quantitative measure of the extent to which an outcome achieves an objective, as judged by an individual or group.

The value or utility associated with a score; preference values or utilities are judged by assessors to reflect the clinical relevance of effects or outcomes

Qualitative benefit-risk assessment In a qualitative benefit-risk assessment, the clinical relevance of the evidence and the trade-offs between the safety and efficacy effects may be judged but are not quantified
Quantitative Involving considerations of amount or size; capable of being measured
Quantitative benefit-risk assessment

In a partially quantitative benefit-risk assessment, the clinical relevance of the evidence, and the trade-offs between the favourable and unfavourable effects are quantified.

A fully quantitative benefit-risk assessment goes a step further by mathematically aggregating the favourable effects, the unfavourable effects, and the trade-off values into a measure of the benefit-risk balance.

Rates The relative frequency of an event in a given time period
Reference point An anchor on the visual, usually refers to meaningful values on the scale to aid information extraction
Reproducibility A process or a set of results/decisions is reproducible if the steps involved and parameters used in the process are clearly defined and stated so that the process can be repeated by someone else
Revealed preference An approach which observes and explores preferences as indirectly revealed by an individual's action(s) within real life situations
Risk The negative results (adverse outcomes) of a given treatment for an individual or a population in terms of probability of occurrence having considered the magnitude of severity
Safety The safety of a medical product concerns the medical risk to the subject (e.g., assessed in a clinical trial by laboratory tests (including clinical chemistry and haematology), vital signs, clinical adverse events (diseases, signs, and symptoms), and other special safety tests)
Saturation The purity of primary colours in relation to the wavelengths; narrower wavelengths are more saturated than wider wavelengths

The numeric values with fixed minimum and maximum (bounded scales) assigned to distinguish, e.g., magnitude, severity, performance, preference.

A measure of a real world effect or outcome

Serious Infections Infections which are fatal, or life-threatening, or requires inpatient hospitalisation or prolongation of existing hospitalisation, results in persistent or significant disability, or is a significant medical event.
Stated preference An approach which asks individuals to state their preferences within hypothetical scenarios

Uncertainty may refer to:

  • 1.Randomness, the possibility of different outcomes from an action, which cannot be foreseen for sure in advance.
  • 2.Uncertainty in estimation due to insufficient sampling.
  • 3.Discrepancy in evidences from different sources of data.
  • 4.Measurement error or quality of data (e.g., data not measured by proper means or poor equipment)
  • Utility A subjective measurement that describes a person's or group's preferences (e.g., satisfaction, risk attitude) for an effect or outcome
    Value function A function which converts the input data (parameters) in all criteria into preference value or utility for the options under evaluation
    Value judgement A subjective assessment for appropriateness of values or utility in a decision making problem
    Value tree A visual map, in a hierarchical diagram, of the benefits and risks that are being considered for the analysis; also referred to as an attribute or effects tree
    Visual methods / representation The principles and procedures to present some numerical features or relations by a graph
    Weight The scaling constants assigned to criteria such that the units of scaled preference values across all criteria are equal