A distribution plot showing the integrated benefit-risk scores

In contrast to displaying individual distributions of each benefit and risk criterion, a benefit-risk model can be used to integrate the scores. Figure above shows the final benefit-risk scores for four different treatment options for multiple sclerosis (see the Natalizumab Wave 2 Case Study). A visual inspection of the distribution plots and box-whisker plots clearly indicates that natalizumab is the best treatment option. Choosing between the remaining three treatments is, however, not straightforward on the basis of these plots. Looking at the median of the distributions, glatiramer acetate appears highest (peak of the distribution is towards more right on the plot), followed by beta-interferon, then placebo, but the difference is not great. There are other aspects of the distributions to consider: for example, although placebo has a lower median benefit-risk than glatiramer acetate, the latter is more likely to have a benefit-risk score below a particular cut-off point (corresponding to overall utility of around 0.92).