The Nightingale rose

Reproduced from Lipkus, I.M. & Hollands, J.G. 1999. The visual communication of risk. Journal of the National Cancer Institute Monographs, 25, 149-163.

The Nightingale rose is a variation of the pie chart where, the circle is divided into multiple regions of equal size; and the radius of each slice corresponds to the quantity of interest. The rose-like pie chart was created by Florence Nightingale after the Crimean War which helped her to promote her campaign for better medical care. It is also known as the Coxcomb. An example of an interactive pie chart (coxcomb) is available on