An example of icon arrays comparing the outcomes of two interventions

The pictogram represents the performance of warfarin versus apixaban in the indication of atrial fibrillation, on death from any cause, from the Warfarin Case Study. In the warfarin group 74 patients out of 1000 died from any cause over 1.8 years (95% CI 68 - 79) compared to 66 patients out of 1000 in the apixaban group (95% CI 61 ¨C 71). Patients who want this level of information will need to understand the risks of adverse events if they are not treated at all, and the risks of adverse events under treatment. The communication of benefit-risk to patients for older products is more complicated because of lack of relevant data. However, this study demonstrates that visual displays such as above may be used to aid the communication to patients.