Cartoons used to describe possible complications of a treatment

Figure is reproduced from Bennett, D.L., Dharia, C.V., Ferguson, K.J., & Okon, A.E. 2009. Patient-Physician Communication: Informed Consent for Imaging-Guided Spinal Injections. JACR Journal of the American College of Radiology, 6, (1) 38-44 available from:
The cartoons above describe possible outcomes or complications of a treatment associated with spinal injections. There may be potential miscommunication here, for example, on the left, it is questionable whether the injection causes hand bleed or other parts of the body. Bleeding to internal organs would be considered more serious than a minor hand bleed. It is also unclear how much bleeding is expected. Therefore, extracting information from cartoons can be very difficult and inaccurate. In fact, because cartoons especially are left to the artist¡¯s imagination, there are plenty of rooms for misunderstanding.